In Europe, approximately 1000 species of aphids parasitizing on cultivated plants have been described. The color of insects varies from dark green to black, length - from 0.5 to 1 mm.
The danger of aphids to plants
Aphids infect seedlings by feeding on their sap and releasing toxic compounds. Weakened plants become more susceptible to fungal, bacterial and viral infections.
The pest is extremely prolific. One female can lay up to 150 eggs at a time. The transformation into an adult is 7 days. For 1 season, generation from 10 to 17 generations of the insect is possible. Under ideal conditions (in a greenhouse), one aphid can bring 5 * 109 descendants. Due to the presence of wings, the parasite easily moves to neighboring plants.
Sugar insect secretions - pate - attracts ants. Natural forest orderlies and at the same time pests of the garden contribute to the preservation of the aphid population by transferring eggs and aphid larvae, as well as protecting it from natural enemies (ladybugs).
Mr. Summer resident recommends: methods and means of combating aphids
All species of aphids on various plants are destroyed by approximately the same methods and means. There are also slight differences and preferences specific to certain cultures.
To combat the pest, traditional methods and tools, biological and chemical preparations are used.
Folk methods and means
Mechanical removal of the parasite with a stream of water or hands is recommended every few days. Be sure to remove the affected leaves. Natural enemies are bred (ladybugs, earwigs, gourds, lacewings). Destroy nearby anthills due to the existing symbiosis between the orderlies of the forest and aphids. Around the beds are planted plants that have a deterrent effect: onions, garlic, carrots, dill, Dalmatian chamomile.
In the arsenal of the gardener, there are many effective tools that plants treat to combat the parasite insect.
|A solution of insecticidal soap or dishwashing liquid||A tablespoon is bred in a liter of water.||In order not to damage the plant, the soil during treatment with alkaline solutions should be covered with polyethylene or foil. The procedure is carried out on a cloudy day or in the late evening.|
|Infusion of tomato leaves||2 cups of chopped leaves are soaked in 2 glasses of water and insisted for a day.||Before spraying, the resulting slurry is filtered through cheesecloth and half a liter of water is added.|
|Garlic infusion||3-4 cloves of the plant are crushed, 2 teaspoons of vegetable oil are added to them and the mixture is insisted for a day. After filtering, add half a liter of water and a teaspoon of dishwashing detergent.||Before spraying, 2 tablespoons of the concentrate is diluted in a glass of water.|
|Infusion of shag||500 g of powder is poured into 1 liter of boiling water and boiled for 30 minutes.||Before use, the filtered concentrate is dissolved in a bucket of water.|
|Ash based product||Two glasses of ash powder and 50 g of laundry soap are poured into a bucket of boiling water. Insist 12 hours.||Before spraying, the product is filtered.|
|Apple Cider Vinegar Solution||1 tablespoon of acid is added to 1 liter of water.||The solution is ready for washing foliage.|
|Baking soda solution||75 g of powder is stirred in a bucket of water.||The product is ready for spraying.|
|Ammonia solution||2 tablespoons of ammonia and 1 tablespoon of liquid soap are added to a bucket of water.|
|Mustard solution||30 g of powder is stirred in 10 l of water.|
|Infusions of wormwood, yarrow and celandine||The grass is soaked in a ratio of 1: 2 and a decoction is prepared.||1 liter of concentrate is dissolved before spraying in a bucket of water, to which 40 g of laundry soap is added.|
|Bleach solution||2 tablespoons of lime are bred in a bucket of water.||Use before planting seeds.|
Good reviews were received by Fitoverm (Aktofit), Spark BIO, Bitoxibacillin. The basis of the funds is microflora (viruses or bacteria) that selectively infects insects.
The most popular Fitoverm. It appears after 48 hours. The maximum result is observed on the 5th day. The duration of the protective action is a week. Effective at air temperatures above +20 ° C.
Repeated spraying is recommended every 7 days.
They are characterized by high insecticidal activity. Due to the potential danger to humans, it should be applied strictly following the instructions. The gardener's arsenal includes: Kalash, Biotlin, Karbofos, Aktara, Tanrekom.
One of the commonly used Actara. Insects begin to die after 6 hours. The protection period is largely determined by climatic conditions and can vary from 2 to 4 weeks. The agent is effective at any temperature. To protect the bees should be used in the evening or in cloudy weather.
Aphids on tomato seedlings: how to fight and how to process
Tomatoes are not the first on the list of highly affected plant aphids. Their infection comes from adjacent damaged crops.
The first sign of aphid damage is the appearance of curly mottled leaves on tomatoes.
Due to the tenderness of the leaves in tomatoes, when applying mechanical removal, the water stream is made weak or a sprayer is used, hands are replaced with a classic toothpick. Repeat several times until aphids are completely lost. Infected leaves are destroyed, especially if they grow in the lower part of the stem. Apply folk remedies described above.
Of biological agents, Fitoverm found the best use. It remains in the ground for up to 30 hours, on the green mass of tomatoes - up to 3 days. Spray recommended after 7 days 4 times. To prepare the solution, 8 ml of Fitoverm are dissolved in 1 liter of water. Try to spray the lower surface of the leaves, where insects are usually found. This drug can be used during fruiting, tomatoes after processing can be consumed after 7 days, which can not be said about chemicals. They are used only on tomato seedlings.
Aphids on pepper seedlings
More often, seedlings of peppers are grown on the windowsill along with other plants. When aphids appear, the previously described products based on laundry soap are used. If there is a need for chemical treatment of pepper, plants are taken out of the room.
Aphids on seedlings of cucumbers
The defeat of cucumbers is manifested by shortening of internodes, malnutrition and deformation of leaves and fruits, blanching of antennae. On the underside of the green part of the plant, parasites are visible.
In order to combat insects, damaged leaves and shoots are cut and destroyed. For the treatment of plants, folk remedies, biological and chemical preparations are used.
Aphids on eggplant seedlings
If eggplant grows on open ground, they are attracted by their natural enemies - ladybugs and birds (sparrows, tits) to fight against insects. If aphids on seedlings are found in the greenhouse, the affected shoots are cut and destroyed.
It is allowed to use a warm solution based on insecticidal or tar soap. In extreme cases, the use of chemical insecticides is possible.
Aphids on currants and other fruit shrubs
In spring, it is advisable to pour currant bushes over with boiling water. Affected parts of the plant are cut and burned. An effective tool is a soap-ash solution. 2 tablespoons of liquid soap and 0.5 l of wood ash are dissolved in 5 l of water. The tops of the branches are recommended to dip in the prepared mixture.
Chemicals should be used with great care because of their potential danger to humans when other control methods become ineffective.
Aphids on apple leaves, cherries and other fruit trees
Sometimes aphids can be found on the leaves of an apple tree. Young shoots are more often affected. The insect, eating their juices, secretes compounds due to which the leaves curl, protecting the parasite colonies. Therefore, using protective equipment, you should strive to get inside the folded leaves. It is better to get rid of aphids before the beginning of the flowering period, so as not to harm the pollinating insects (bees and bumblebees).
They use a hunting belt that is worn on a tree trunk to prevent the possible aphids from entering aphids. It can be purchased at the store or made independently. The basis is a rubber strip and gel from ants (Adamant, Taracid, Proshka Brownie). Rubber can be replaced with burlap and plastic wrap, and gel with solid oil.
In case of fragmented damage to insects, you can try to rinse off the tree with a stream of water, pinch off the tops of shoots and remove (burn).
Gardeners are happy to use tobacco dust and a solution based on ammonia. To prepare, mix 100 ml of 10% ammonia solution, a tablespoon of grated laundry soap (palmitic acid) and 10 l of water. Fruit trees (cherries, plums) are treated in this way with an interval of 7 days several times during the fruiting period.
In the absence of ammonia, they use a solution of household or tar soap, as well as infusions of caustic and odorous herbs that are used to control aphids on vegetable crops (tomatoes, cabbage or beets), such as yarrow, wormwood and St. John's wort.
Biological products use the most effective ones, they are mentioned above.
Chemical protection products for fruit trees
For the treatment of fruit trees, it is recommended to use substances with an intestinal-contact mechanism of action, which, penetrating the plant, are concentrated at its growth points. Using a chemical agent, it should be borne in mind that new generations of insects, which will appear in about 3 weeks, can adapt to it. The gardeners' arsenal includes insecticides:
- systemic intestinal contact: Aktara, Biotlin, Tanrek, Confidor Extra, Voliam Flexi, Angio Forte;
- non-systemic enteric contact: Aliot, Neofral, Kinmiks, Decis Profi.
To combat wintering insects, the combined preparation 30 Plus and Profilactin are used, the basis of which is liquid paraffin and organophosphorus compounds. The first treatment is carried out in early spring.
Different pest populations prefer different fruit trees, for example, apple and pear are mainly attacked by red gall apple aphid, cherries - cherry aphid, however, the methods for controlling the parasite are the same.
Aphids on roses
For the treatment of roses, the same compositions are recommended that are used to process vegetable crops. A 4-hour infusion of dandelion roots in a water bath is also effective, for the preparation of which 400 g of the root part of the plant and 1 l of water are mixed. Before spraying the plant, the resulting concentrate is filtered and the volume is adjusted to 10 l (1 bucket).
In relation to aphids on roses, an anti-flea shampoo is effective. A solution based on it is prepared by dissolving 2 tablespoons of the product in 10 l of water.
Chemical products Lightning and Spark have been well established, used in compliance with the necessary safety measures.