Oleander: description, types and grades, rules for leaving points

Oleander is a shrubbery plant belonging to the kutra family. Homeland - countries of the subtropical zone: Morocco, Portugal, southern China.

Description of Oleander

Oleander is a large branched evergreen shrub reaching a height of 4 m. On the brown color of the branches are long and pointed leaves with a glossy surface.

The plant has large flowers of various colors and shapes. They form inflorescences. The flowering period, as a rule, falls on the summer-autumn.

Types and varieties of oleander

The main types of oleander are:

  • Ordinary.
  • Fragrant.
  • Indian.

Each of them is also divided into varieties. The greatest number of which exists in the oleander ordinary.

GradeDescription
Light pink varieties
KewpieThe shape of the flower is simple. Cream color with a pinkish tint.
Double peachIt features a large number of petals and a gentle coral shade.
Martha hanna hensleeThe edge of the petal is embossed and bright pink veins on a paler background.
Bright pink varieties
AntoineThe flowers have a sharp tip and saturated red stripes on a bright pink background.
General pershingLush pink with white stripes.
ItaliaRed-pink petals twist inward.
Whites
Hardy whiteThey have a simple shape.
Sister agnesThe edge of the flower is wavy.
Album plenumThey differ in the middle of white-yellow color and terry inflorescence.
Peach orange
Sherrie allen turnerThe hue is light orange, turning into a more saturated middle.
Angiolo pucciDelicate orange color with a richer center.
Miss roedingThey are distinguished by splendor and a coral shade.
Reds
Blue blanc red dVariegated red and white flower.
Cherry ripeThey have a white pestle and brightly amaranth petals.
RubisDiffer in terry and uniformity of coloring.
Yellow
Maria gambettaThe flower is lemon in color. The hue is not evenly distributed - it thickens toward the center.
Luteum plenumTerry flower, light yellow.
Mathilde ferrierA distinctive feature of the variety is the corrugated edge and the sharp tip of the petal. Hue - yellow saffron.

The intricacies of growing an oleander and caring for it at home

Home care for the flower is quite simple. Oleander needs:

  • A sufficient amount of sunlight.
  • Ventilate the room, which will provide a constant flow of fresh air.
  • Plenty of moisture.
  • Specialists advise to grow the plant, taking into account the characteristics, because of the toxic juice in the leaves and stems.

Location and temperature

This view should be placed on the south side. Otherwise, with a lack of sunlight, it discards foliage. Summer temperature, comfortable for the plant averages +25 ℃. Whereas in winter it can withstand up to -5 ℃.

To "rest" the shrub in the winter, you should create comfortable conditions for it - put it on the balcony as soon as the autumn ends.

Oleander has low frost resistance. This is due to the fact that the bush grows in southern latitudes. The temperature minimum for the plant is -5 ... -10 ℃.

Watering

Water regularly - the shrub likes a lot of moisture. But do this only after the earth dries a little. Care should be taken, since excessive drying of the earthen coma adversely affects the root system.

Water should be warm and settled. It is better if its temperature is a couple of degrees higher than in the room in which the flower is located.

In the hot summer period in sunny weather, in addition to watering directly into the ground, you can also leave water in the pan. This will prevent the tips of the leaves from drying out. When it is cloudy - the container should be drained.

Soil and top dressing

Growing a plant will require soil with neutral acidity. It is permissible to use slightly alkaline soil.

It is worth considering that the shrub is worth feeding. Especially when it is actively growing. During this period, feeding is advisable to make 2 times a month. All organic fertilizers will enhance foliage growth and inhibit flowering. But mineral complexes for oleander are useful. Fertilizers should be added in the evening hours.

Spraying

The plant is unpretentious to spraying. In spring, summer and autumn, as a rule, this procedure is not applied. But in winter it should be carried out, since excessive dryness of the air causes the tips of the leaves to dry. You need to spray 1 time in 7-10 days. To do this, take water warmer than the room air.

Transplant, pruning

A shrub needs a transplant in the following cases:

  • After the planted stalk reaches the necessary parameters.
  • When the dimensions of the plant no longer correspond to the size of the pot.

After transplanting, intensive irrigation is required.

Pruning the plant is required regularly. Immediately after flowering, it is desirable to reduce the length of each branch by half. For the next season, it is from the end of a new, rapidly growing shoot that a flower is formed. Pruning from an oleander branch may be suitable as a cuttings for planting.

Breeding

In order to get a new plant, you can plant seeds bought in a specialized store. But this process is fraught with certain difficulties, such as poor germination, obligatory processing before planting, exactingness to the conditions under which the seed will germinate.

In this regard, most often use cuttings. To do this, use a sharp knife to remove a branch 15 cm long, on which there should be 4 buds. Perform this during the offseason. After this, you should sprinkle the cut with charcoal. This will protect against rot and disease.

Next, the handle is placed in a mixture composed of equal proportions of humus, turf and sand. It is necessary to create comfortable conditions for the plant - this is a constant temperature of +21 ° C and low humidity. It is important to prevent moisture retention in the soil to prevent decay. After 4 or 5 leaves appear on the branch, the oleander should be transplanted to a permanent place.

It is important to remember that the flower is poisonous, so any touch on it should be protected with gloves.

Possible difficulties in caring for the oleander, diseases, pests

Oleander is rarely attacked by pests and diseases. But if this happens, then, as a rule, there appears a mealybug, spider mite, scale insects, oleander cancer and fungal diseases (sooty fungus, gray mold, leaf spotting). You can cure a plant's disease with both store-bought drugs and folk remedies.

Ditsis insecticide and Actellik non-systemic insecticide, alcohol or kerosene will help get rid of scabies. If preparations of industrial production are used, then they are taken in the amount of 15-20 drops and diluted in 1 liter of water, after which it is possible to spray the infected places. Or, having moistened a cotton swab in a liquid, apply it to areas where coccidic insects have sucked.

The same procedure is done with kerosene or alcohol, provided that the disease is not in neglected form.

To be sure that the bush is hit precisely by the red spider mite, you need to carefully look at the leaves. In this case, brown spots can be seen on their lower part. It is able to draw juice from a plant. Actellik will also cope with it. The concentration of the drug is the same as in the previous case. But if you do not want to mess with chemicals, then you can try a folk remedy - just wash the plant under water at +45 ° C. The oleander will withstand this temperature, but the tick will not.

Oleander cancer is not treated. It can only be avoided - this is achieved by proper care of the bush.

From gray mold will help spraying with fungicide. Sooty fungus should be removed with a damp cloth from the surface of the sheet. But leaf spotting requires cutting (removal) of the affected parts and bringing the conditions of detention to optimal.

Mr. Summer resident warns: oleander - benefit or harm

Oleander contains inerin and oleandrin - toxic substances that can cause severe intoxication of the body. It is better if there is a special room in the housing - a winter garden, in which it is worth keeping the plant. In addition, the flowers have a faint odor that can cause insomnia and mild headaches.

Benefit:

  • Perfectly cleans the air.
  • It has bactericidal properties.
  • Absorbs radiation.

Watch the video: Study of Stomatal Distribution on Leaves - MeitY OLabs (April 2020).